Bauhaus architecture is a movement that comes from the influential German school founded by Walter Gropius (1883-1969) in the early 20th century, which had the utopian goal of creating another rational and functional architecture and design.
Bauhaus is a school of architecture, fine arts, design, the Bauhaus became one of the famous buildings that represent the rational and the functional architecture that responds to people’s needs and practice the quote that says the form follows the function. The Bauhaus became the international style when Walter Gropius and other prominent members of the Bauhaus emigrated to the United States in the 1930s and subsequently influenced the development of Modernism in the 1950s and 1960s.
Bauhaus architecture blurred the lines between disciplines and the arts and crafts techniques used to maintain aesthetic standards in an increasingly mass-produced industrialized world, Bauhaus architecture produced everything from furniture and household items to typography and buildings. A century later, the influence of the Bauhaus continues around the world.
According to the history of the Bauhaus school, After the end of world war I, the building was realized after six months, Walter Gropius told us that the building is “the ultimate goal of all artistic activity”, and the main goal of the Bauhaus is to unify the work of art, he was inspired by the German concept Gesamtkunstwerk, or “the total work of art”, which gathers plenty of art forms into one.
The school moved from Dessau to Berlin before being closed by the Nazis in 1933, the famous architect Mies van der Rohe was the director of the school. The Nazis called the Bauhaus “a degenerative art”, describing it as a progressive concept and internationalism “non-German”.
But the Bauhaus was not defeated by the Nazis. Instead, Walter Gropius and other prominent members of the movement left Germany, spreading Bauhaus ideas from Western Europe to the United States and Canada to the Middle East, and making an international movement.
In 1937, Walter Gropius realized the Gropius House in Lincoln after moving to the United States, he headed to the department of architecture at Harvard school of design with the architect Marcel Breuer.
Marcel Breuer was a Bauhaus student who becomes an architect, in 1925, he designed furniture known as Wassily chair made of tubular metal, and the chair still to these days look modern even it was designed a century ago.
Although it only existed for 14 years, the Bauhaus has taken root around the world and remains arguably the most influential art and design school in the world of architecture.
Not all Bauhaus buildings are the same. They can be angular and linear or have curved balconies and rounded corners. But here are some key common characteristics:
- Flat roofs.
- Glass curtain walls.
- Smooth facades.
- Steel, glass, concrete.
- The privileged asymmetry over symmetry.
- An emphasis on simple geometric shapes: triangle, square and circle.
- Avoid ornamentation to focus on a simple and functional design.
A fundamental tenet of Bauhaus architecture is “Truth About Materials,” which focuses on using materials in their most natural and honest form, allowing them to be celebrated and seen rather than covered up.
Bauhaus architecture and its design principles still influence the shape and appearance of many objects, even in modern days, the best example is the words of steve jobs on the influence of the Bauhaus on the design of Apple products.
The largest concentration of Bauhaus-style buildings in the world can be found in occupied Palestine. The “white city” is on UNESCO’s list of world cultural heritage for its more than 4,000 white-painted Bauhaus buildings, which were built from 1933 by Jewish and political refugees fleeing Europe.