1- The Guggenheim Museum
The Guggenheim Museum is one of New York City’s most iconic and beloved buildings, Wright’s wish was to translate organic forms found in nature into architecture. The spiral architecture of the Guggenheim Museum is reminiscent of a nautilus shell, made up of continuous spaces that freely blend into each other. Rejecting traditional museum patterns, which forced visitors to walk through adjoining rooms and retrace their steps at the end of the tour, Wright’s original idea was to lead visitors to the top floor by elevator and then leave them to descend naturally along the gently sloping circular ramp while admiring the works on display, every day at the Guggenheim museum there are several thousand visitors who go in and out of frank’s circular sliding doors.
Frank Lloyd Wright had a lot of passion for the museum it was going to be a really great opportunity for him to integrate his ideas about organic architecture which you see in this nice easy upward spiral of the ramp, even though Frank Lloyd Wright didn’t like to build in the cities, but he integrated this masterpiece in a nice way and he refers to the building as a continuation of the street grid but then going up into this spiral, what you see is a building that is slowly moving out from its core downstairs, one of the great things about the building is that you have the ramp stacked on top of each other, and to a museum, it’s a very individual experience, what you get here is also an experience of seeing and being seen and doing that constantly while you’re walking around the ramps.
2 – The Pompidou Center
The Center Georges Pompidou is a building dedicated to the public reading, and art contemporary creation built in Paris between 1970 and 1977, one of these very first decisions to equip the capital with a unique cultural tool of its kind resembling a museum of modern art, a large public library, a design center, and an institute for contemporary music, four large institutions in one building in central Paris.
The Beaubourg plateau, an urban void created in 1930 by the destruction of an unsanitary block and which in the 1960s became a wild car park, 18000 m² abandoned area, the ideal land for such a huge project for the first time in France, international competition is launched, the jury of three great architects Oscar Niemeyer, Jean Prouvé, Philip Johnson must choose between 681 projects, there is everything, inclined parallelepipeds, a large tower, and a single project of 493 proposes to occupy half of the place and leave the other place for an esplanade.
The project of Richard Rogers and Renzo piano provokes a violent controversy, during the construction of the Eiffel Tower, insults are fired by the French people “Oil refinery”, “hangar”, a large construction set, a column, and a second column, on each of the two columns a gerberette beam, another large main beam which makes the width of the building placed on gerberette beams, the gerberettes are unbalanced, install a tie rod which pulls the end of the gerberette then the bracing between levels.
All the complex functions that normally are inside a building are placed on the exterior facade, the totality of circulation along the entire length of each floor and the large escalator protected by a transparent shell, the escalator allows access to 5 levels, to the east, the architects put the freight elevator for the transport of large loads, the air conditioning systems, the power supplies. (placing circulation and techniques to the outside to completely free up interior spaces and produce an open space).
Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers offer the freedom of space, the absence of walls and columns, a flexible and free space by movable walls assembled and disassembled allowing to invent new configuration of space with temporal users and temporal exposures, The public library is designed with the concept of flexibility, in 15,000 m², the only walls are the shelves filled with books without separation between the conservation areas and the reading areas, in fact, 1,500 readers read, work and search for books and have the pleasure of walking in free space.
The creation of the esplanade for an ideal vision of the city, gently sloping to invite pedestrians to go towards the building smoothly, Continuity from the outside square to the building, no separation between the square and the project.
The horizontal circulations and the escalator on the west facade are not only a technique for freeing up the interior spaces, but they also provide a view of the square and a panoramic view of Paris.